1.4. Working conditions and the tool
For carrying out of repair work the pure, well shined workplace with a workbench and a vice is necessary. The premise area should be sufficient to spread out a detail, and in a certain order, needlessly each time to clean them.
It is necessary to have near at hand the complete set of the high-quality tool. The good tool can be used very long, it will quickly pay back expenses for acquisition. A complete set basis — wrenches with an open pharynx with which help it is possible to perform works in any well accessible place of the car. It is desirable to have a set nut накидных keys which apply basically at a strong inhaling of bolts and nuts or in places of the complicated access to fastening elements.
To lower expenses, it is possible to get the complete set of the combined keys (an open pharynx on one end and a ring of the same size — on other). On fig. 3
such keys are shown. It is necessary to get and heads (their external diameter should not be too big) with which help it is possible to turn on nuts and the bolts which are in very hard-to-reach spots or deepenings.
Fig. 3. Bilaterial рожковый a wrench (1) and combined накидной рожковый a wrench (2)
Besides it still it is necessary to have the complete set крестовых screw-drivers. In motor industry bolts with heads Torx find the increasing application. For them отворачивания the special complete set of heads is used.
If it is necessary to repair often the car, in addition to the core it is possible to get still the tool of narrower appointment. Its application will allow to save a lot of time. As an example it is possible to mention a shock screw-driver without which hardly probable it is possible to turn away screws with crosswise шлицем
without their damage. Naturally, it can be used and for an inhaling. Often happen are necessary круглогубцы
as transmission gear wheels, shaft and other details are kept in working position in most cases by means of elastic rings, to remove which by means of a usual screw-driver it is possible with great difficulty. It is possible to get two types круглогубцев
: one for external rings (fig. 4
), and another for internal rings. They can be got with direct or G-shaped sponges. Not to manage and without динамометрического a
key which can be adjusted so that it sliped at achievement of the certain moment of an inhaling of a bolt or a nut. Similar keys can be equipped by the indicator which shows the reached value of a twisting moment. Thanks to it it is possible to tighten bolts of fastening of a head of the block of cylinders, without being afraid of occurrence of damages or thinnesses owing to the insufficient moment of an inhaling. Unfortunately, some works cannot be spent without the appropriate equipment. There is a number of the works which carrying out is better to trust experts. On fig. 5 the
most often used tool is shown.
Fig. 4. Круглогубцы (1) for cultivation of external elastic lock rings and nippers (2) for removal of internal elastic lock rings
Fig. 5. The tool and the adaptations used at maintenance service and repair: 1 — a hydraulic jack; 2 — a butterdish; 3 — support; 4 — a portable lamp; 5 — a sampler; 6 — динамометрический a wrench; 7 — ножовка; 8 — a wire brush; 9 — lamellar measuring щупы; 10, 11 — measuring instruments of size of deterioration of tyres
Before to spend any works on the car, it is necessary to familiarise attentively with the recommendations resulted further to protect itself from traumas:
- Never rely completely on one automobile jack. Use always additional support. At their absence it is possible to enclose ahead or behind on the party of spent repair, for example, two removed wheels, having put their one on another. If the car slides off, it will rise on these wheels;
- Never tighten definitively wheel bolts or nuts if the car is in the hung out position on support;
- Never open a radiator cover if the engine has not cooled down yet. If differently it is impossible, impose a cover with a thick layer of rags and turn it on one turn to exhaust;
- Never merge engine oil right after trips. Engine oil recycling should be spent only according to operating instructions, in no event it is impossible to merge it in reservoirs or on the earth;
- Do not suppose hit of drops of a brake liquid or antifreeze on paint and varnish coverings. Formed as a result of a stain leave hardly or at all do not give in to removal;
- Do not inhale a dust formed owing to deterioration of brake overlays. Despite the fact that what brake overlays and колодки produce, as a rule, without asbestos application, this dust nevertheless is toxic. At use of compressed air for a purge of brakes it is necessary to prevent dust hit in respiratory organs;
- Immediately delete from a floor the oil or greasing rests not to slip;
- Do not use wrenches with inappropriate width of a pharynx or the worn out keys. Проскальзывание a wrench it is connected in most cases with risk of reception of a trauma. On places of grazes and cuts it is necessary to impose necessarily a plaster not to admit pollution or oil hit;
- Never lift very heavy details of the car without the assistant;
- In need of work on system of release of the fulfilled gases wait, when its details will cool down;
- At use in electrotool work it is necessary to put on goggles. They will not be superfluous and at work under the car;
- Get a good protective cream for hands to process it hands before performance of "dirty" works. He will allow to wash easier them after work and will protect from aggressive influence of the fulfilled oil and other harmful substances;
- It is impossible to work in shirts with long sleeves, with fluttering parts of clothes near to moving mechanisms. Long hair in an operating time should be tied up;
- Never smoke in immediate proximity from the car. It is necessary to disconnect plugs from the storage battery if works on the power supply system are performed. The short circuit caused by metal subjects can lead искрообразованию. For maintenance of fire-prevention safety it is necessary to have near at hand the fire extinguisher;
- Never put on the engine the included portable lamp — its strong heating can lead to damage of high-voltage wires, despite the fact that what they are protected by a wire casing.
If to observe these recommendations at carrying out described in the given works management, you will avoid traumas, and the car will be serviceable.